Roman religion

They were land-found at the site of a late Medieval seaport in Spain, where pirates were believed to have raided Spanish galleons for their riches. Although it is impossible to prove exactly who may have handled these coins, they were the standard currency at the time and have been found at known pirate sites, including the famous Oak Island site and I have a credit on that episode of “The Curse of Oak Island” for my assistance and attribution. There are similar specimens offered below. Shipwreck Coins for Sale Spanish copper Maravedis “cob”, dated Olive-green patina with heavy earthen deposits. Copper 8-Maravedis “cob” struck c. Heavily counterstamped with ” “, “8”, “VIII”, etc. Olive-green patina with earthen deposits.


A great variety of religious cults were to be found. In addition to numerous Celtic deities of local or wider significance, the gods of the classical pantheon were introduced and were often identified with their Celtic counterparts. In official circles the worship… Nature and significance The Romans, according to the orator and politician Cicero , excelled all other peoples in the unique wisdom that made them realize that everything is subordinate to the rule and direction of the gods.

Yet Roman religion was based not on divine grace but instead on mutual trust fides between god and man.

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Section of Trajan’s Column , CE , with scenes from the Dacian Wars Early Roman art was influenced by the art of Greece and that of the neighbouring Etruscans , themselves greatly influenced by their Greek trading partners. An Etruscan speciality was near life size tomb effigies in terracotta , usually lying on top of a sarcophagus lid propped up on one elbow in the pose of a diner in that period. As the expanding Roman Republic began to conquer Greek territory, at first in Southern Italy and then the entire Hellenistic world except for the Parthian far east, official and patrician sculpture became largely an extension of the Hellenistic style, from which specifically Roman elements are hard to disentangle, especially as so much Greek sculpture survives only in copies of the Roman period.

Vast numbers of Greek statues were imported to Rome, whether as booty or the result of extortion or commerce, and temples were often decorated with re-used Greek works. There are no survivals from the tradition of masks of ancestors that were worn in processions at the funerals of the great families and otherwise displayed in the home, but many of the busts that survive must represent ancestral figures, perhaps from the large family tombs like the Tomb of the Scipios or the later mausolea outside the city.

The famous bronze head supposedly of Lucius Junius Brutus is very variously dated, but taken as a very rare survival of Italic style under the Republic, in the preferred medium of bronze. Arch of Constantine ,


Greek Ministry of Culture Share World Greece Roman Empire Archaeology Archaeologists in Greece have uncovered rare jewels, coins and other artefacts while excavating tombs near the ruins of the classical city of Corinth dating to between the fourth and first centuries A. Keep up with this story and more by subscribing now The Greek Ministry of Culture said in a statement that the Roman burial monuments appeared to have been built into a preexisting Hellenic substructures from the period between the death of Alexander the Great in B.

Five of the most well-appointed tombs, the experts said, would have belonged to wealthy inhabitants of Roman Greece.

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This extensive coinage became the model for many of the crude copies produced by the Celts of Germany, France and Southern England. There is no evidence that the Celts in Ireland struck their own copies of this currency but the English and continental coins are occasionally found in Ireland. The Roman conquest of Europe extended to England but not fully to Ireland although an encampment north of Dublin was briefly established in the first century AD.

Roman coins are found in an Irish context but mostly mixed with other ornaments and hack silver indicating that the coinage was not acknowledged as a medium of exchange at a set value but rather as another piece of precious metal to be assayed at every exchange. In support of this theory it is interesting to note that the Roman coins found in Ireland are most often of silver or gold and rarely the copper pieces which are found in large quantities in the rest of ‘Roman Europe’.

During the ‘Dark Ages’ in Europe, after the fall of the Roman empire, few coins were in use in Ireland on the basis of the hoard evidence. However, metalwork was at a very high level of skill and quality and many hoards of silver and gold ornaments have been found. It is normally assumed that any coin that arrived in Ireland was quickly melted and used to manufacture such ornaments.

Coinage for External Trade Obverse of a silver dirham of Caliph Mansur struck in Baghdad, dated AH AD From about AD coins do begin to turn up again in Irish hoards but mostly, as in Roman times, in a context that suggests little distinction is made between struck silver and other worked precious metals. Some hoards do occur of English pennies and occasionally early Islamic dirhams from about AD.

These hoards are usually in a context that suggest that they were for use in trade across the Irish Sea with England or Wales. Even after the Viking settlements were established in Dublin and Limerick and when Danish and English coins were in use in these settlements there is evidence that the coinage, when it did get into Irish hands, was either melted or used in return trade with the Vikings. There is no evidence that the native Irish made use of coins except for external trade before the arrival of the Normans in

Roman religion

Collecting the Coins of France by Ralph Heymsfeld French coinage spans about years, beginning with the coins of Greek Colonies and the Celtic Gauls, and continuing largely uninterrupted to the present day. Although such a vast expanse of time might seem overwhelming, it also creates a wealth of numismatic opportunities.

There are many periods that have not yet been fully researched, and there are fascinating areas for specialization.

KEY INFORMATION. This site has many features which are designed to make it possible for our customers to learn about collecting coins and other collectibles, find out about sources of information, and purchase items at reasonable prices, and with the guarantee that they are genuine and as described.

It is commonly accepted that in BC, at the time of the unification, Ch’in introduced the Pan pronounced “Ban” Liang coinage, discontinuing knife and spade coinage. This is by no means certain and we find it difficult to accept, believing the coinage of this period is more complex and knife and spade coinage was phased out gradually. This series is difficult to classify, with specimens occurring at weights from 2 to 18 grams but rarely over 12 grams , and diameters from 14 to over 34 mm.

Having examined a number of Pan Liang hoards, we found most specimens within a single hoard will be of uniform diameter but the weight can vary significantly. This had lead us to believe the coins diameter is the important factor in determining the period or issue. Unfortunately, not enough dateable hoard or archeological evidence currently exists to work out the exact classification of the Pan Liang series, but the Records of Han provide a clue, stating that heavy Pan Liang were cast until about BC.

We believe this refers to the larger specimens over 30 mm which range between 6 and 12 grams but averaging 7 to 8 grams or 15 shu. This could make the earliest issues contemporaries of the Ming-Huo Round Coin Series , but since they were cast to the heavy standard down to BC, it may not be possible to differentiate between the Zhou, Ch’in and early Han dynasty issues. Much research is needed on this area. Most references suggest that the large Pan Liang coins were the principle coinage of the Chin Dynasty, but a problem arose; they are rather scarce, in fact they have a higher scarcity than ming knifes and square foot spades.

If they really had been the principle coinage of China for over 75 years, they should be fairly common. This takes us back to our earlier theory that square-foot spades, and possibly ming knifes, were still in use throughout much of the Ch’in period, and may in fact have been the principle coinage of Ch’in.

Coinage of the Roman Republic Online

Greek and Roman Coins Greek Coinage Ancient Greek coinage can be divided into three periods that generally conform to the traditional periods of Greek art. During this period the Greeks moved from a currency struck in electrum an alloy of gold and silver to a bi-metallic one of silver and gold. The Lydians may have been the first to produce coins by exploiting the naturally-occurring electrum found in the local Paktolos River.

About the same time, cities in Ionia also began to strike electrum coins.

Roman Artifacts dating from the 1st to the 5th Century. The primary focus is on the Late Roman Empire which despite its hardships, was still filled with works of art and craftsmanship. Each item on the site is photographed in detail, described and referenced where sources are available. Ancient coins are also showcased including Greek, Byzantine and of course Roman coins.

The 2 Reichsmark was issued from to It pictures Paul von Hindenburg on one side and an eagle holding a wreathed swastika on the other. It is 25mm in diameter and contains. Nazi Germany used three different designs on their regular issue 5 Reichsmark coins. The first pictured the Potsdam Military Church, also called the Potsdam Garrison Church, on one side and an eagle and two small swastikas on the other.

It was struck only from to It burned down in the fires caused by the Allied bombing in The second type was struck during only during the last part of and the first part of It pictured Paul von Hindenburg on one side and an eagle on the other. Starting in the Eagle reverse was replaced with an eagle holding a wreathed swastika, similar to the 2 Reichsmark. The Eagle and Swastika 5 Reichsmark was struck from to The silver 5 Reichsmark coins are each 29mm in diameter and contains.

Ancient Greece: Haul Of Jewels And Golden Coins Uncovered From 2,000-Year-Old Tombs

Roman adoption of metallic commodity money was a late development in monetary history. Bullion bars and ingots were used as money in Mesopotamia since the 7th millennium BC; and Greeks in Asia Minor had pioneered the use of coinage which they employed in addition to other more primitive, monetary mediums of exchange as early as the 7th century BC.

The greatest city of the Magna Graecia region in southern Italy, and several other Italian cities, already had a long tradition of using coinage by this time and produced them in large quantities during the 4th century BC to pay for their wars against the inland Italian groups encroaching on their territory.

This is perhaps the largest for-sale offering of numismtic titles for India. Listings are bibliographic by time period and category, and include useful titles not currently in stock.

Their chief port, Cattigara, seems to have been in the lower Mekong Delta. Alexandros mentions that the main terminus for Roman traders was a Burmese city called Tamala on the north-west Malay Peninsula, where Indian merchants travelled overland across the Kra Isthmus to reach the Perimulic Gulf the Gulf of Thailand. Detailed geographical information about the Roman Empire, at least its easternmost territories, is provided in traditional Chinese historiography. The Shiji by Sima Qian c.

These accounts became significantly more nuanced in the Book of Han , co-authored by Ban Gu and his sister Ban Zhao , younger siblings of the general Ban Chao , who led military exploits into Central Asia before returning to China in AD. Pulleyblank explains that Chinese historians considered Daqin to be a kind of “counter-China” located at the opposite end of their known world. Gardiner, the earliest descriptions of Lijian in the Shiji distinguished it as the Hellenistic-era Seleucid Empire.

Hill uses linguistic and situational evidence to argue it was Petra in the Nabataean Kingdom , which was annexed by Rome in AD during the reign of Trajan. Muawiyah I , governor of Syria and later Umayyad caliph , r. Some contact may have occurred between Hellenistic Greeks and the Qin dynasty in the late 3rd century BC, following the Central Asian campaigns of Alexander the Great , king of Macedon , and the establishment of Hellenistic kingdoms relatively close to China, such as the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom.

Even the rest of the nations of the world which were not subject to the imperial sway were sensible of its grandeur, and looked with reverence to the Roman people, the great conqueror of nations. Thus even Scythians and Sarmatians sent envoys to seek the friendship of Rome. Nay, the Seres came likewise, and the Indians who dwelt beneath the vertical sun, bringing presents of precious stones and pearls and elephants, but thinking all of less moment than the vastness of the journey which they had undertaken, and which they said had occupied four years.

Roman currency

Facebook Twitter Archeologists investigating the Bay of Aboukir on the northern coast of Egypt near the city of Alexandria, have made many exciting discoveries. This bay is known to have been the site of many settlements from the Roman as well as the pre-Hellenistic and Hellenistic eras. These settlements included the cities of Heraklion and Menouthis, both of which have been long lost below the waves. Some of these relics include a beautiful crystal statuette that was unfortunately incomplete, and several coins.

The coins are dated to the time of the first Roman emperor.

That Ireland was reasonably well known in the classical world is demonstrated by Ptolemy’s Geography. This is a list of place names and tribal names with their exact locations given in longitude and latitude. It was compiled by Ptolemy who was a Graeco-Roman living in Alexandria, Egypt, during.

Nice chunky early Roman coin. At the time of Caesar’s assassination, Augustus was visiting Illiricum. He quickly returned, but only managed to obtain his rights as heir after a brief but bitter struggle with Mark Antony. Later they patched up their differences, and together with Lepidus, formed a Triumverate and set about wreaking vengeance on the murderers of Julius Caesar.

Together they defeated Brutus and Cassius at Philippi, and Lucius at Perusia, and after defeating the navy of Sextus Pompey, they found there was nobody left to fight but themselves. Antony humiliated his wife Octavian’s sister by his dalliance in Egypt with Cleopatra, and this was all the excuse that Octavian needed. He declared war on his erstwhile partner, and smashed him in the naval battle of Actium.

AE As struck in Cordoba in Spain. The coin has taken some wear but has recognisable portrait. Antony, Lepidus gave up most of his powers to Augustus, leaving him in sole command of the Roman world. The Empire expanded steadily, but in 9AD, in possibly the only setback of his reign, the entire Roman Army in Germany under Publius Varus, was annihilated by the Cherusci under their famous leader Arminus. This loss was a terrible shock to the old Emperor, who is said to have cried out in anguish “Varus, Varus, give me back my legions!

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Since its publication in there have been significant revisions to the dating of the series following the discovery of new hoards, but no attempt has been made to reflect these or make any other amendments to the published typology at this stage. This project takes as its starting point the Roman Republican coins in the British Museum collection.

These are published in a dedicated online catalogue prepared in 1 , which forms an update to the catalogue of the collection by Grueber 2:

Silver coins from around the world offered for sale by Joel Anderson, Interesting World Coins.

Both coins feature the same design. The reverses depict an adult monkey and a baby monkey sitting in a peach tree. The baby is holding a peach, which is symbolic of longevity and immortality. The 1 troy ounce 1 Dollar coin is 45mm in diameter. Both are struck in. The Australian Saltwater Crocodile is one of the largest reptiles in the world. Males can reach over 20 feet 6. It is capable of taking almost any animal that enters its territory, including humans.

Despite its name, it can be found in fresh, brackish or ocean water. The coin features a beautiful reverse frosted matte finish. The Queen and the Crocodile have a brilliant finish while the background areas have a frosted finish. The coin was struck at the Perth Mint in Australia and has a mintage of 1 million pieces.

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